1.5-2 pages with 2 scholarly sources (one from text book )…
Paper about the Role of Values & Ethics at work, maybe include things such as honesty as a leadership value, full-swing values, leadership & values, how leader behavior influences employee conduct & organizational reputation, personal values…
What are thoughts about my value orientation scores and how it makes me an effective leader?
Interpretation: per text book Manning, G. (2018). The Art of Leadership (6th ed.). McGraw-Hill Higher Education
A description of each personal value follows:
Theoretical. The primary interest of the theoretical person is the discovery of truth. In the laboratory, field, and library, as well as in personal affairs, the purpose of the theoretical person is to know the truth above all other goals. In the pursuit of truth, the theoretical person prefers a cognitive approach, one that looks for identities and differences, as opposed to the beauty or utility of objects. This person’s needs are to observe, reason, and understand. Because the theoretical person’s values are empirical, critical, and rational, this person is an intellectual and frequently is a scientist or philosopher. Major concerns of such a person are to order and systematize knowledge and to understand the meaning of life.
Economic. The economic person is interested in what is useful. Based originally on the satisfaction of bodily needs and self-preservation, the interest in usefulness extends to the practical affairs of the business world—the production and marketing of goods and the accumulation of wealth. This type of person is enterprising and efficient, reflecting the
stereotype of the average businessperson. Economic values sometimes come into conflict with other values. The economic person wants education to be practical and regards unapplied knowledge as wasteful. Great feats of engineering and application result from the demands economic people make on people in science. Economic values may conflict with aesthetic values, such as in the advertising and promotion of products and services, except when art meets commercial ends. In relationships with people, the economic person is more likely to be interested in surpassing others in wealth than in dominating them politically or in serving them socially.
Aesthetic. The aesthetic person finds highest satisfaction in form, harmony, and beauty. The value of each single experience is judged from the standpoint of grace, symmetry, and fitness. The aesthetic person regards life as a procession of events, with each impression to be enjoyed for its own sake. An aesthetic person may or may not be a creative artist; the aesthetic person finds chief interest in the artistic episodes of life. Unlike the theoretical person, the aesthetic person usually chooses, with the poet John Keats, to consider truth as equivalent to beauty or agrees with H.L. Mencken that to make a thing charming is a million times more important than to make it true.96 In the economic sphere, the aesthetic person often sees the process of manufacturing, advertising, and trade as a destruction of important
aesthetic values. In social affairs, the aesthetic person may be said to be interested in people, but not necessarily in their welfare. The aesthetic person tends toward individualism, self-sufficiency, and idealism in personal relations.
Social. The highest value for this type of person is love. The altruistic or philanthropic aspect of love is the interest of the social person. Humanistic by nature, the social person prizes other people as ends in and of themselves, and not as tools or means to other goals. Therefore, the social person is kind, sympathetic, and helpful toward others. Such a person may find the economic and political values to be cold and inhumane. In contrast to the political type, the social person regards love instead of power as the most suitable form of human relationship. In purest form, social values are totally unselfish.
Political. The political person is interested in power and influence, although the person’s activities may not fall within the narrow field of politics. Whatever the vocation, the political person seeks to be a Machtmensch, an individual who is powerful. Leaders in any field usually will have a high interest in power and status. Because competition and struggle play a large part in all of life—between the sexes, between groups, between nations, and between individuals—many philosophers have viewed power as the most universal and most
fundamental of human motives. In certain people, however, the desire for direct expression of power is uppermost, and their primary values are social influence and the exercise of authority.
Religious. The highest value of this type of person is spiritual peace. A religious person may or may not belong to an organized religion; people are religious if they but seek to comprehend the cosmos as a whole and to relate themselves to its embracing totality. Religious people have as their goal the creation of the highest and most satisfying value experience. Some people who are religious focus on events, people, and experiences in this world; that is, they experience meaning in the affirmation of life and active participation therein. With zest and enthusiasm, they see something divine in every event. On the other hand, some religious people are transcendental mystics, seeking to unite themselves with a higher reality by withdrawing from life. This type is ascetic, and like the holy men of India, finds inner peace and unity through self-denial and meditation. In many individuals, the affirmation and negation of human existence alternate to yield the greatest value satisfaction.
In evaluating your personal values, remember the following points:
• All six values on the questionnaire are positive. The questions do not measure negative values, such as greed or violence.
• Culture influences personal values. Through the processes of imprinting, modeling, and socialization, people learn to place higher importance on some values over others. Thus, the prestige afforded the monarch, priest, businessperson, scientist, artist, and teacher depends on the values promoted by each society. In the Pygmy culture, for example, the male with the greatest social esteem usually is not the strongest, wealthiest, most spiritual, most artistic, or most intelligent; rather, he is the one who shares most generously. Consider American society: What are the primary values for people in the United States today? Are they the same for men and women? Do they reflect your personal values?
• By forcing choices among six personal values, the questionnaire provides an overall value orientation. This means that your lowest personal value may be more important to you than the highest personal value of another individual. Similarly, your highest may be less important to you than the lowest of another individual. The questionnaire measures the relative strength of six personal values, so that you obtain a picture of your overall value orientation, or an understanding of what is most important to you.
• Ideally, a person’s life will allow maximum expression of personal values. This helps explain the achievements and satisfactions of “theoretical” Albert Einstein, “economic” John D. Rockefeller, “aesthetic” Leonardo da Vinci, “social” Jane Addams, “political” Elizabeth I, and “religious” Martin Luther.
• Basic value systems are fairly firm by the time most people reach adulthood. Ideas about what is important are well established and are unlikely to change unless a significant emotional event takes place. For most people, few experiences are significant or emotional enough to disrupt basic values formed during childhood and adolescence. As a rule, if a person changes basic values during the adult years, it is only because a situation is experienced that previous values cannot resolve.97
• Different organizations reflect and endorse different values, and each organization’s success depends on having people in it, especially leaders, who promote its value system. Some people may be ideally suited for theoretical organizations such as universities, economic organizations such as corporations, aesthetic organizations such as performing groups, social organizations such as human service agencies, political organizations such as political parties, or religious organizations such as churches, synagogues, and mosques. Mismatches can be stressful for both the individual and the organization. Examples include the social person who gives away the store, the individual who uses religious position for personal power, and the art curator whose priority is profit. Consider your own values. What type of organization, if any, would be most appropriate for you?98